Nutrient timing is crucial to an athlete™s recovery and muscle tissue repair following high-volume and endurance or resistance exercise. The goal is to enhance muscle protein synthesis, resulting in positive net protein balance. After intense prolonged exercise, body stores of glycogen are depleted and muscle tissue begins to breakdown. Research suggests that when an athlete is glycogen-depleted after exercise, a carbohydrate intake of 0.6 Œ1.0 g CHO/kg during the first 30 minutes, and again every two hours for 4 Œ 6 hours, may adequately replace glycogen stores that have been depleted in both the muscle and liver. It has been demonstrated that delaying carbohydrate ingestion by as little as two hours post- exercise can reduce the rate of muscle glycogen re-synthesis by 50%. Post-exercise, muscles move from the catabolic mode to the critical anabolic phase that depends on the action of insulin and nutrient utilization during the first 30-45 minutes. Nutrients, particularly carbohydrate and protein, support the anabolic phase, in part by the effect on insulin. Certain carbohydrates including dextrose and fructose are the excellent choices given their rapid absorption and utilization.