Vitamin E is one of the body’s most important antioxidant nutrients. Antioxidants protect healthy cells from oxidative and free radical damage. Free radicals are unstable chemicals formed in the body during metabolism and from exposure to environmental sources, such as pollution and cigarette smoke. Free radicals are necessary for energy metabolism and immune function, but when an excessive number of free radicals are formed, they can attack healthy cells, especially cell membrane lipids and proteins. This, in turn, is thought to contribute to a number of degenerative diseases. Vitamin E is an especially valuable antioxidant in the cell membranes, where it prevents oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids by trapping free radicals. This helps stabilize and protect cell membranes, especially red blood cells and tissues sensitive to oxidation, such as the lungs, eyes, and arteries. Selenium is a nutritionally essential trace element for humans and animals. The National Research Council’s Recommended Dietary Allowance for selenium in adults ranges from 55 to 75 mcg per day depending on age and gender. Selenium is a cofactor to about 10 selenoproteins in the body; the most important of these appears to be glutathione peroxidase (GPX). GPX uses glutathione to reduce hydrogen peroxide and thus protect cells and plasma against free radical injury. GPX activity depends on an adequate supply of dietary selenium. Recently, selenium as selenocysteine has been identified in the active center of type 1 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinases, two important enzymes regulating the formation and degradation of the active thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine (T3).
Another important selenoprotein appears to be selenoprotein P, but its functions remain unclear. Selenium and vitamin E appear to have synergistic effects, since some signs of vitamin E deficiency in animals can be alleviated by dietary selenium. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) has numerous biological functions. Foremost, it is essential for the synthesis of collagen and glycosaminoglycans which are the building materials of all connective tissues, such as skin, blood vessels, tendons, joint cartilage and bone. Vitamin C participates in the biosynthesis of carnitine, serotonin, and certain neurotransmitters, including norepinephrine. Vitamin C is among the most powerful antioxidants in humans and animals. It is a water-soluble, chain-breaking antioxidant that reacts directly with superoxide, hydroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen. The antioxidant functions of vitamin C appear to have clinical significance in providing protection from free radical damage to the eyes, lungs, blood and the immune system.